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Archive for the ‘Edutainment’ Category

More “Useless Facts for Inquiring Minds.”

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— In 2006, a 37-year-old Scottish man suffered an epic hangover that stands as the worst ever recorded. Over a four-day period, the man drank 60 pints of beer. Following a non-stop, four-week headache and steady loss of vision, the man went to an emergency room for help. It took six months of blood-thinning treatment to get rid of the headache and restore the man’s vision.

— In 1953, at age 10, Keith Richards of the Rolling Stones was a choirboy who sang at the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II.

— The deepest hole ever drilled is the Kola Superdeep Borehole in Russia. The Kola was drilled between 1970 and 1989, and it reaches 40,230 feet (7.62 miles) into the Earth. The Kola’s purpose is to learn stuff about the Earth’s crust.

— It’s a warm spring day, and you plop down in a field of shamrocks (a plant in the genus trifolium, “tri” meaning three) in search of a four-leaf clover. Your odds of success are one in 10,000.

Clover

— During World War II, with great numbers of men in uniform, some American sports teams faced a shortage of players. Thus, in 1943, the NFL’s Philadelphia Eagles and Pittsburgh Steelers combined rosters and played as the Steagles. In 1944, Pittsburgh merged temporarily with the Chicago Cardinals and played as the Car-Pitts.

—  The largest bat in the world is the flying fox bat of Australia, with a wingspan of up to six feet. The smallest is the bumblebee bat of Thailand, which is smaller than a fingernail.

— Before John Glenn became an astronaut and a U.S. Senator, he was a Marine fighter pilot. During the Korean War, he flew 90 combat missions and earned the nickname “magnet ass” for the enemy flak he attracted. For a time, Glenn’s wingman in Korea was Ted Williams of the Boston Red Sox, who interrupted his playing career and returned to active duty in 1952-53.

— Statistics show that one-eighth of American workers, at some point in their lives, work for McDonald’s.

McDonalds

— Roy Sullivan (1912-1983), a ranger at Shenandoah National Park, survived being struck by lightning seven times, apparently an all-time record. The strikes happened between 1942 and 1977, mostly while he was on duty in the park, a storm-prone area in a storm-prone state.

Sullivan always got spooked when the weather was threatening, and often, he would try to leave the area. The lightning seemed to get him anyway. Most of the strikes set his hair on fire, so he began to carry a container of water with him at all times.

— Elvis Presley, Lenny Bruce, and Orville Redenbacher all died in the bathroom.

— In 2012, 60 Minutes and Vanity Fair conducted a poll that asked Americans who they would pick to compose a new national anthem. Bruce Springsteen came in first. Dolly Parton was second.

— In 1984, screenwriter Robert Townes was nominated for the Best Adapted Screenplay Oscar for the film “Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes.” To protest the radically rewritten version of his script, Townes altered the film’s closing credits, removing his own name as screenwriter and adding “P. H. Vazak,” the name of his Hungarian sheepdog. The Academy never knew the difference.

Tarzan

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Useless Facts

More “Useless Facts for Inquiring Minds.”

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— In 2011, pro golfer Kevin Na set a PGA record, but not in a good way. On the 9th hole at the Valero Texas Open, he shot a 16, the most strokes on a par-4 hole in PGA history. He took a full 20 minutes to do it.

— The plastic caps on the ends of your shoelaces are called aglets.

— Of the 32 football teams in the NFL, all have team mascots except the Jets, Giants, Raiders, Redskins, and Packers.

— During World War I, England’s Navy Minister Winston Churchill pushed for the creation of a “land boat” that could break through enemy lines and traverse difficult terrain. The result in 1915 was Little Willie, the world’s first military tank. Little Willie carried a crew of six, but its top speed was only two miles per hour. It overheated easily and couldn’t cross trenches.

In 1916, England unveiled an improved version, the Mark I (Big Willie), which also underwhelmed. However, by 1917, England had improved the design markedly, and 400 Mark IVs were rolled out. By the end of the war, the Mark IVs had captured 8,000 enemy troops and 100 artillery pieces.

mark-iv

— The Catholic religion espouses Seven Heavenly Virtues and Seven Deadly Sins. The virtues are faith, hope, charity, prudence, justice, courage, and temperance. The sins are pride, greed, lust, envy, gluttony, wrath, and sloth. Hard to argue with that.

— Wisconsin calls itself “America’s Dairyland,” but California passed it decades ago as the country’s leading producer of dairy products. Wisconsin still makes more cheese, so that’s something.

— In December 1976, the British rock band Pink Floyd arranged for the construction of a 40-foot-long helium-filled balloon in the shape of a pig to use on the cover of its album Animals.

Inclement weather caused the balloon to break free of its moorings, and the pig drifted over Heathrow Airport, resulting in panic and cancelled flights. Eventually, an angry farmer reported that the balloon came down in Kent, frightening his cows.

— The average five-year-old asks about 400 questions per day.

Little girl with few paper euro banknotes

— In Hawaii, you are prohibited by law from carrying coins in your ear.

— Bohemia, a cultural region in central Europe, has been bounced around like a football for centuries. It began in the 800s as part of the Great Moravian Empire; split off as the Duchy of Bohemia; became part of the Holy Roman Empire; part of the Habsburg Monarchy; part of the Austrian Empire; part of Czechoslovakia; part of Nazi Germany; part of the Second Czechoslovak Republic; part of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia; and today, part of the Czech Republic. Stay tuned.

— Both Rogaine and Viagra were first developed as treatments for high blood pressure.

— While he was President, Ulysses Grant was ticketed several times for driving his horse-drawn carriage too fast around Washington. On one occasion, he was stopped for speeding down M Street and taken to court. He paid a $5 fine and was required to walk back to the White House.

grant-us

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Useless Facts

More “Useless Facts for Inquiring Minds.”

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— The automatic dishwasher was invented by Josephine Cochrane, a widow and socialite from Shelbyville, Illinois, who was angry because her servants were chipping her fine china. Her very successful company was later bought out by Hobart; which became KitchenAid; and is now Whirlpool. Cochrane is venerated as the founder.

— The physical feature that distinguishes birds from all other animals is the presence of feathers.  Feathers are unique to birds, and every bird has them.

— At ATMs in Vatican City, you can opt to conduct your transaction in Latin.

— The band Aerosmith has sold over 150 million albums, and they’re still touring after 46 years. Each band member is worth well over $100 million. However, most of their money didn’t come from album sales. It came from (and continues to come from) sales of the video game Guitar Hero: Aerosmith. The game has generated far more revenue than any of Aerosmith’s albums.

aerosmith

— In 1838, while leading his troops against a French invasion force, Mexican General Santa Anna was struck by a cannon ball and lost his left leg. He was fitted with a prosthetic cork leg.

Ten years later, during the Mexican-American War, an infantry unit from Illinois captured Santa Ana and confiscated the cork leg. He replaced it with a peg leg. Later in the war, the Illinois unit captured him again. Today, both legs are on display in Illinois museums, despite continuing demands by Mexico for their return.

— “Baby carrots” come in two varieties: genuine baby carrots and “baby-cut carrots.” The latter came first. In truth, they are merely ugly or misshapen carrots, destined to be thrown out, that are shaved down and passed off as a new “baby” variety. Sheer marketing baloney. However, they became so popular that farmers went on to create a line of real baby carrots with a small core, bright color, and a more sugary flavor.

— The most widely-consumed mushroom in the world is Agaricus bisporus. Young specimens with a closed cap are known as crimini or button mushrooms. When they grow to maturity, they’re known as portobellos. In the intermediate stage, when the cap is slightly open, they are baby portobellos.

Arachibutyrophobia is the fear of having peanut butter stuck to the roof of your mouth.

Arachibutyrophobia-

— Sixteen U.S. presidents have been elected to two terms in office. Then there was Franklin Roosevelt, who died during his 4th term, after which the country wisely made two terms the legal limit.

Those 17 presidents all served their terms consecutively except one: Grover Cleveland. He was President 1885-1889, then lost the 1889 election to William McKinley. He came back to defeat McKinley and serve again 1893-1897.

— Emil Krebs (1867-1930), a German interpreter and diplomat, was fully literate in 68 languages and had some knowledge of 120 more.

— In 1919, late in the 9th inning of a baseball game between Cleveland and Philadelphia, Cleveland pitcher Ray Caldwell was struck by lightning and knocked unconscious. After five minutes, Caldwell got to his feet and insisted on finishing the game. With his next pitch, the batter grounded out, and the game was over.

— In the 2006 film Cars, Paul Newman was the voice of Doc Hudson. Newman died in 2008. Cars was his last film and the highest-grossing of his career.

doc-hudson

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Useless Facts

More Useless Facts for Inquiring Minds.

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— Tigers have striped skin as well as striped fur.

— The common land snail, familiar to many as an icky garden pest, typically hibernates through the winter months. If conditions require, however, snails can remain asleep for up to three years.

— The average adult human sheds between 30,000 and 40,000 skin cells per hour, or about one million skin cells per day.

Ping-pong is a trademarked term in most of the world, which is why the term table tennis is used in the Olympics and elsewhere. Over the years, the game also has been known as flim-flam, whiff-whaff, and pim-pam. Supposedly, British soldiers in India invented the game in the 1860s.

ping-pong

— The real name of Sting, the British musician, is Gordon Matthew Thomas Sumner. He earned the nickname Sting early in his career when he performed in a yellow and black sweater, and a band-mate remarked that he looked like a bee.

— Change for a dollar can be made in 293 different ways.

— Most regulation golf balls in the U.S. have 336 dimples. British golf balls have 330 dimples. Some special types have as many as 500.

— Before he got into acting, Steve Buscemi was a New York City firefighter. After the 9/11 attack, he worked as a volunteer and helped NYFD dig through the rubble at Ground Zero. He also helped in the clean-up after Super Storm Sandy in 2012.

buscemi

— The word with the highest score possible in Scrabble is oxyphenbutazone (a drug of some kind). The odds of getting to play this word are laughable, but if you did, and you covered three triple-word-score squares, it would be worth 1,778 points.

— Thomas Jefferson invented the swivel chair.

— Barbara Streisand is the only singer to have number-one-selling albums during the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s. During those five decades, she had nine albums at the top of the Billboard charts.

— In 1860 and 1861, before telegraph service was available, the fastest mail service to and from California was the Pony Express. It was a private business delivering letters and small packages between St. Joseph, Missouri, and Sacramento.

The service used riders on horseback and 157 relay stations. Horses were changed every 10 miles, riders every 100 miles. They covered the 1,900 miles in 10 days.

Over its 19 months of operation, the company lost $30.00 on every letter it carried.

pony-express

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Useless Facts

More Useless Facts for Inquiring Minds.

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— Beavers have transparent eyelids, which is convenient, since they spend so much time under water. They also have ear and nose valves that close automatically when they dive. A beaver can stay underwater for about four minutes.

— On an average day, the American people consume 18 acres of pizza.

— The Declaration of Independence was finalized on July 4, 1776. Thereupon, the original version was signed by John Hancock, President of the Continental Congress, and Charles Thomson, the Secretary. A Philadelphia printer then made 500 copies, which were distributed to all members of the Continental Congress.

Somehow, the original document was lost, so the delegates were called back to Philadelphia. On August 2, 1776, they signed a new copy of the Declaration. This time, for reasons unknown, Secretary Thomson was not invited to sign.

— Orville Wright’s first successful airplane flight on December 17, 1903, covered a distance of 120 feet. The wingspan of a Boeing 747 is 196 feet.

wright-brothers

— Almonds are members of the peach family.

— As a teen, British author Roald Dahl attended a fancy boarding school in England. While there, he and his fellow students often were used as taste-testers by the Cadbury chocolate company. Dahl said he dreamed of inventing a new chocolate bar that would “win the praise of Mr. Cadbury himself.” Dahl went on to write “Charlie and the Chocolate Factory,” and he references chocolate in other books.

— This sentence uses every letter in the alphabet: The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.

— All breeds of dog have pink tongues except the Chow-Chow and the Shar-Pei. Their tongues, for unknown reasons, are blue-black.

chow-chow

— The average person fall asleep in seven minutes.

— Each time the Supreme Court is in session, white quill pens are placed on the tables of the opposing counsels. This tradition dates back to the early days of the Court. The pens are no longer used, of course, but they are treasured by the lawyers as souvenirs of their day in court.

— The only English words that end in -dous are hazardous, horrendous, stupendous, and tremendous.

— The Northern Cardinal is the official state bird of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, North Carolina, Ohio, Virginia, and West Virginia (Don’t bother counting. That’s 7 states), making it the state bird champion. Runner-up is the Western Meadowlark, state bird in Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oregon, and Wyoming. (6 states.)

cardinal

 

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Useless Facts

More Useless Facts for Inquiring Minds.

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— The full name of Barbie, the Mattel “fashion doll,” is Barbara Millicent Roberts, a fact established in a series of Barbie novels in the 1960s. Her parents are George and Margaret Roberts of Willows, Wisconsin. Barbie attended Willows High School.

— Mel Blanc, the legendary voice of Bugs Bunny, was allergic to carrots.

—  The names of the continents — Asia, Africa, America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia — all begin and end with the same letter. (Yes, North America and South America are separate continents, but lighten up, people.)

— The Sesame Street characters Bert and Ernie were named after Bert the cop and Ernie the taxi driver in the 1946 film “It’s A Wonderful Life.”

B&Es

— The soft drink 7 Up was introduced in 1929 as “Bib-Label Lithiated Lemon-Lime Soda.” (“Lithiated” because the drink contained a dose of the mood-stabilizing drug lithium citrate. Lithium was banned from soft drinks in 1948.) Early on, the company founder renamed his beverage 7 Up, but he never explained what 7 Up means, and he took the secret to his grave.

— The shortest complete sentence in English is “I am.”

— One of the traditions of the Navajo people, the Diné, is to throw a party when a baby laughs for the first time. The person who made the baby laugh must organize the party and cover the costs.

— American silver coins have ridges around the edges to prevent “coin clipping” (shaving off little bits of silver). The Mint doesn’t add ridges to pennies or nickels because those metals aren’t worth stealing.

Coins

— Maine is the only U.S. state whose name is just one syllable.

— In 1987, American Airlines eliminated one olive from each salad served in first class. The reduced cost of olives, plus the minute reduction in fuel consumption, reportedly saved the company $40,000 that  year.

— The largest shopping center in North America is the West Edmonton Mall in Alberta, Canada. The mall covers 5,300,000 square feet, about the size of 48 city blocks. It includes 800 stores, 100 restaurants, two hotels, an amusement park, an indoor lake, a miniature golf course, and an ice rink.

— The largest shopping center in the world is the Dubai Mall in the United Arab Emirates. It covers 12,100,000 square feet, the size of 50 football fields. It features 1,200 stores, 120 restaurants, an Olympic-size ice rink, an interactive playland for children, an amusement park, an aquarium, and a zoo.

Dubai Mall

 

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The Augusta Canal

This is my second post about Augusta, Georgia, which I visited in June on a lark. No need to read my earlier post first, but feel free.

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When I think about how people lived in earlier times, I tend to judge them as primitive and unsophisticated. Not stupid, mind you, but simple and unrefined. Clueless compared to us cutting-edge modern folks.

And up to a point, they were. For example, to prevent disease, you have to understand the concept of pathogens. Good luck with that if you lived before people knew what pathogens are.

But sometimes, I run across evidence that people from days of yore were quite competent and shouldn’t be sold short. A case in point: the impressive feat, way back in the 1840s, of building the Augusta Canal.

A bit of background. In 1733, General James Oglethorpe founded Savannah, the first settlement in the new colony of Georgia. In 1736, Oglethorpe sent a contingent of troops up the Savannah River to build an outpost at the limit of upstream navigation.

The purpose was to establish a settlement where goods could be brought from towns to the north and west and shipped downriver to Savannah for export.

The limit of upstream navigation turned out to be 200 miles north of Savannah at the fall line, where the Piedmont Plateau drops down to the Coastal Plain. For centuries, native people used the ledges and shoals at the fall line to cross the Savannah River.

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(Later, the cities of  Macon, Columbus, and Milledgeville also were established at the fall line. Below them, the rivers are deep and smooth to the Atlantic or the Gulf. Above them is rocky, shallow water and a steady climb to the Appalachians.)

Oglethorpe’s expedition built an outpost on the west bank of the Savannah River about seven miles south of the fall line. The settlement was named in honor of Princess Augusta, the wife of the Prince of Wales.

And Oglethorpe’s plan worked splendidly. For the next hundred years, Augusta thrived as a trading and shipping center. Wagons rolled into town from across the region carrying tobacco, cotton, and other goods. The warehouses brimmed with product. Barges and steamboats transported a steady stream of cargo downriver to Savannah, where it was shipped to other markets.

But by the early 1800s, Augusta’s prosperity was waning. Various economic factors were taking their toll — the country’s westward expansion, the growth of the railroads, competition from other river towns.

Then in the 1840s, a man with a vision came forward. Henry H. Cumming, son of the city’s first mayor, proposed a plan to turn Augusta into a manufacturing center by building a canal from the fall line to Augusta.

 

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Henry H. Cumming

Because the canal would drop 52 feet in elevation by the time it reached Augusta, it could provide hydropower to operate mills and factories. Plus, it would be a transportation corridor and a source of drinking water.

Cumming hired a prestigious engineer to survey the route and draw up the plans, and the city fathers gave it their blessing. Construction on the Augusta Canal began in the spring of 1845.

The workers — hundreds of slaves, freedmen, and white laborers — dug the entire canal by hand.

This, mind you, was an era when the only tools available were pickaxes, shovels, and horse-drawn carts. There was no electric power, no heavy equipment. Steam power was in development, but it was not practical for a field project.

The canal was designed and built in three sections. Where each section ended, some of the water was allowed to flow downhill and back into the Savannah River. At those drops, the new factories would be built.

Despite constant engineering complications and a several legal battles over the route, the canal was completed and opened in July 1850.

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Painting of the headgates of the Augusta Canal at the fall line, 1850s.

But the project was only a limited success. The canal performed as expected, but it wasn’t large enough to power all the proposed factories and mills. The engineers had miscalculated.

Thus, after the understandable delay of the Civil War, a project to enlarge the canal got underway in 1872.

Again, battalions of workers were assembled. Some were local laborers, some were convicts from area prisons. Italian stonemasons and Chinese railroad workers were brought in. Steam-powered equipment was used in addition to picks and shovels.

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Expanding the Augusta Canal. Painting by Bernard Willingham, 1870s.

By 1875, the new and improved Augusta Canal was in operation. This time, the channel was 13 feet deep and 150 feet across.

Between the canal and the Savannah River, a towpath was built atop the levy so horses and oxen could pull the barges. The towpath ran from the canal headgates to downtown Augusta.

As envisioned, new factories soon arose along the canal banks. “Mill towns” materialized to house the factory workers and their families. The textile industry and other enterprises flourished in Augusta well into the 20th Century.

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Sibley Cotton Mill on the Augusta Canal, 1903.

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A flat-bottomed “Petersburg” boat on the canal in the 1890s.

As the decades passed, the canal generated electricity not only for the factories, but also for streetcars, streetlights, homes, and businesses.

But by the 1960s, inevitably, Augusta’s prosperity began to wane again. The canal was becoming antiquated. Truck transportation took business away. Electricity was cheaper from the new power plants on the Savannah River.

Meanwhile, the city began neglecting the canal and even considered draining parts of it. When Augusta demolished several abandoned factories during urban renewal projects, parts of the in-town portion of the canal were allowed to dry up.

In 1971, another Cumming stepped forward and woke up the city fathers in grand style. It was Joseph Cumming, great-grandson of Henry, who managed to get the Augusta Canal added to the National Register of Historic Places.

This action forced the city administration to change its viewpoint about the canal. “Save the Augusta Canal” bumper stickers became popular. Local citizens organized to stop the construction of a golf course near the canal headgates.

By the 1990s, Augusta also realized that the canal had superb recreational possibilities. Soon, a canal authority was chartered. The canal was cleaned up, and the flow of water was restored throughout its length.

In 1996, the canal was designated a National Heritage Area. One of the old factories was converted into a canal museum and visitor center.

Today, You can rent a canoe or kayak at the headgates, float as far downstream as you like, and take a shuttle back.

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You can walk, run, or cycle for miles on the towpath or other trails in the vicinity.

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The city now offers cruises along the canal aboard replicas of the old Petersburg flatboats. Appropriately, one of those flatboats is the Henry H. Cumming.

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Sibley Mill (left) and J. P. King Mill today. Both are vacant, but are owned and protected by the Canal Authority.

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One leg of the canal passes through this in-town courtyard as the water flows back to the Savannah River.

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A view of the canal from the towpath.

The Augusta Canal is now 166 years old — and doing pretty well for its age.

 

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